January 17, 2017

USING SUGGESTOPEDIA METHOD TO DEVELOP THE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILL


Judul: USING SUGGESTOPEDIA METHOD TO DEVELOP THE STUDENTS' WRITING SKILL
Penulis: Yuni Yuniariani


USING SUGGESTOPEDIA METHOD TO DEVELOP THE STUDENTS'
WRITING SKILL
Yuni Wulan Ariani
12004132
Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Abstract: People consider that writing is the most important skill in learning English. It is because writing is one of the ways to communicate using to the language. But there are many problems in learning writing such us motivation, confidence, habit of the students, teaching method, material, etc. The most crucial problem is that the teaching method is not interesting. Based on that problem, the writer tries to offer the suggestopedia method to be applied in writing class. This method is good for writing class. It is because the purpose of the suggestopedia method is to liberate the mind of students from the negative assumptions. So that the learning process will be more fun and the students will be more relax during the class. In this paper, the discussion of what suggestopedia is and how it is applied in a writing class are explained in details. In addition, a model of a classroom application will also be given.
Introduction
English is an international language. It is used by people to communicate to others from different countries. Based on that, it is very important to learn English in order to get closer with the world in the future.
Learning English cannot be separated from four skills, there are speaking, writing, listening and reading. "Speaking is a productive skill which is different in many ways, (Brown, 2000: 246). "Writing skill is a process of drafting, structuring, reviewing, focusing, and generating", (Harmer, 1998: 158). Listening is a kind of skill that especially important to acquire a good speaking habits and improves the pronunciation, (Brown, 2000: 228). Reading in English is like reading in your native language (Brown, 2000). In the end of study the students are expected to master those four skills.
Among these four skills, people consider that the most important skill is writing. It is because of several reasons. The first reason is that writing is important in written communication. Most people spend a fair amount of time communicating via the written word whether you are messaging friends, writing to your parents, writing your assignment or writing your research. The second reason is that writing skill is important in career communication. Most of career communications are being handled online and in text. Even just applying for jobs usually requires a few different types of written communication, from filling out an application to writing a cover letter and drafting a resume. Considering that reason, writing skill is very important to be mastered well.
Learning writing is not such easy thing. There are many problems that influence the process of learning writing.The first problem is that students have less interest in writing. Many students don't have good feeling toward writing. They tend to don't care and don't concentrate during the class. The second problem is that students have less motivation. Some students are being lazy to attend writing class. They think that writing is not important for them. The third problem is that the students find it difficult to develop idea. In the writing process, some students feel difficult in developing idea, they are confused about what they are going to write. It is because they are less in reading. The fourth problem is that the students have less confidence in writing. Students do not have belief in their own ability. So, there are many problems that students and teachers face in writing class.
Considering that problem, the teacher should find an appropriate method to develop the students writing ability. One of the methods that teachers can use in writing class in order to develop the writing ability of the students is suggestopedia method. This method is applied in many foreign language teaching. "Suggestopedia, the application of the study of suggestion to pedagogy, has been developed to help students eliminate the feeling that they cannot be successful of the negative association they may have toward studying and, thus to help them overcome the barriers to learning" (Larsen-Freeman, 2000:73). This method concerns with the mental of the students. It focuses on how to make the students relax and fun in class. The set of the classroom is bright and colourful which is different from classroom in usual. This method also gives positive expectation of success, and uses varied method such as music, games and dramatized texts, etc. In short, suggestopedia method is an interesting way to develop the students' writing ability.
The intention of this paper are (1) to describe what suggestopedia method is, (2) to describe why suggestopedia is an appropriate method to develop the students' writing skill, (3) to explain the way of suggestopedia in developing the student's writing skill. In addition, at the end of the discussion, this paper will give example of classroom activities in order to give the readers clear explanation.
Literary Review
Writing
Definition
There are many views of writing. Every expert has different understanding. According to Tarigan (1986:21),"writing is drawing of signs gap that explains a language that can be understood by someone". One's ideas and feeling will be developed with a lot of practices. Therefore, writing is one of the basic language skills which are very important for students to be mastered. Oshima and Hogue (2006, p. 265) defined writing as a process of creating ideas, organizing them, writing a rough draft, and finally polishing the rough draft through editing and revisions. According to http://supergirrl.tripod.com/writing_theory.html, "writing is a means of communicating ideas and information."
Based on the theories above, writing is using written symbol to draw idea in order to communicate with someone. The process of writing is organizing, drafting, editing and revising.
Categories of writing
Brown (2004:220) describes that there are four categories or writing skill. Those four categories are as follows:
Imitative writing
This category includes the ability to spell correctly. The students have to attain skills in the fundamental, basic tasks of writing letters, words, punctuation, very brief sentences. This level is usually for Elementary School level.
Intensive (controlled) Writing
In this category, most assessment tasks are more concerned with a focus on form, and are rather strictly controlled by the text design. The students have to attain skills in producing appropriate vocabulary within a context, collocation, idioms, and correct grammatical features up to the length of a sentence. This category is applied for Junior High School level.
Responsive Writing
This level requires the students to perform a limited discourse level, creating logically connected sequence of two or three paragraphs. It is more focused on the discourse conventions that will achieve the objectives of the written text. It has strong emphasis on the context and meaning. This skill area of writing is usually intended for Senior High School level.
In conclusion, Thereare many categories of writing. They are Imitative writing, and responsive writing. These categories are used based on the level of the students.
Types of Writing
According to Rachmadie (2000:41) writing is divided into four types:
Description or Descriptive
Description is a writing form used to describe something.
Narration or Narrative
Narration is the form of writing used to tell or relate the story of act or even.
Exposition
Exposition is used to explain or interpret meaning and also to give information and make explanation.
Argumentation
Argumentation is used in persuading and convicting.
In short, Writing is different in types. This types is based on the objectives of the writing itself.
Suggestopedia Method
History
According to soendjonoSuggestopedia is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist GeorgiLozanov. It is used in different fields, but mostly in the field of foreign language learning. The theory applied positive suggestion in teaching when it was developed in the 1970s. However, as the method improved, it has focused more on "desuggestive learning" and now is often called "desuggestopedia." Suggestopedia is a portmanteau of the words "suggestion" and "pedagogy". A common misconception is to link "suggestion" to "hypnosis". However, Lozanov intended it in the sense of offering or proposing, emphases student choice.
Definition
Sadtono (1996) said that word suggestion comes from the Latin word suggero, suggesi, which means placing suggestum, whispering or notify indirectly. In English, the meaning has developed into offers or proposes. He also argues that suggestopedi suggestologi comes from, namely the systematic study of the effects of non-rational or influences the unconscious. So, suggesti is a communicative factor used to suggest that other people make choices in a rational and intuitive in accordance with their respective personalities in learning another language.
Besides the word definition, there are some other different definitions of suggestopedia. According to http://www.lozanov.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=frontpage&Itemid=1&lang=bg, Suggestopedia (in its new desuggestive development as well) is a science for developing different non-manipulative and non-hypnotic methods for teaching/learning of foreign languages and other subjects for every age-group on the level of reserve (potential, unused) capacities of the brain/mind. Based on http://www2.vobs.at/ludescher/pdf%20files/SUGGESTOPAEDIA%20-%20book.pdf, "Suggestopaedia is a teaching system which makes use of all the possibilities tender suggestion can offer". Another definitions is that "Suggestopedia, the application of the study of suggestion to pedagogy, has been developed to help students eliminate the feeling that they cannot be successful of the negative association they may have toward studying and, thus to help them overcome the barriers to learning" (Larsen-Freeman, 2000:73).
Based on the theories above, it can be concluded that Suggestopedia is a teaching method that uses a power of suggestion to make the learning process is success. Suggestopediagives positive suggestion to the students that the learning process is easy and fun.
The Purpose of Suggestopedia Method
The purpose of Suggestopedia method is to liberate the mind of students from the negative assumptions that have been established (Lozanov, 1978:252). Many students are affected by negative assumptions. The assumption in question is negative sayings such as "learning is boring," "English grammar is difficult" and others. Assumptions such as this will limit human potential. By replacing these negative assumptions with the positive assumptions, we can exploit the tremendous human potential to learn.
The Principles of Suggestopedia Method
Here are some principles of suggestopedia method, according to Larsen-Freeman (2000:81):
The teacher goal is to accelerate the process by which students learn to use a foreign language for everyday communication.
The teacher is the authority in the classroom. The students trust the teacher so they feel more secure.
The characteristics of the teaching learning process are: a) The class is bright and cheerful. b) Students select target language names and chose new occupations. c) Using text or dialog in the target language and native language. d) The teacher presents the dialog during two concerts.
The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of students and with individual right from the beginning of a language course. The students have more control of the target language and can respond more appropriately and even initiate interaction themselves.
A great deal of attention is given to students' feelings in this method.
Language is the first of two planes in the two-plane process of communication. The culture which students learn concerns the everyday life of people who speak the language.
Vocabulary and communicatively are emphasized.
Native language is used when necessary.
Evaluation usually is conducted on students' normal in-class performance and not through formal tests.
Errors are corrected gently, with teacher using a soft voice.
According to the principles, there are many rules in suggestopedia method. We can use this method in different skills of language as long as we consider the principles of the method.
Discussion
Basic Procedures
Here are the basic procedures in using suggestopedia method in the writing class
Class Preparation
As we mention above, the class of suggestopedia method is bright and cheerful. So the first step that the teacher should do is filled the class with pictures of great scenery and large enough. For example, the teacher can use picture with each profession and accompanied by vocabulary in English which is written in colourful letters, the teacher also can use poster containing grammatical information.Ornamental plants placed in the corners of the classroom. Soft music is playing. Space arrangement like this will change the perception of the students that "learning is hard" to "learning is fun" (see picture 1). Vocabulary that is hung on the wall would be recorded brain subconscious students. This will greatly assist the learning objectives.

Picture 1
Class Activities
The teacher greets the students in their native language. The teacher tells the students that they are about to begin a new and exciting experience in language learning. The teacher has to say it in the confident way.
The students will get new name and new job. Lozanov believes that this will remove the problems faced by the students' real world that would interfere with the learning process.
The teacher greets each student use his new name and ask him a few questions. The students just answer yes or no.
After greeting, the teacher distributes the text that teacher has prepared. It contains a text that the students may learn in that day, based on the objectives of the lesson.
After that is active concert. The teacher reads the text with classic music played. The teacher reads in the expressive way. The intonation and rhythm should be balance to the music. The students follow the voice of the teacher. The students are encouraged to highlight and take notes during the session.
The next activity is passive concert. In this time, the teacher suggests the students to put down their script and just listen. After that the teacher reads in text again but in the different way. The music is different too. The teacher reads at a normal rate. The teacher makes no attempt to match the voice with the music.
After the concert end, the teacher explains to the students about the text such as the kind of text, the organization, the grammar use or the vocabulary may appear.
For the activation the teacher should ask the students to make their own text.
In the end of the class there is no homework for the students.
There are some other activities that can be applied in the suggestopedia of writing class. The first activity is that they can interview their friends which have new identity, then make a report in the form of written. The second activity is throwing ball writing, the students can use ball to make a fun activity. The students can throw the ball to their friends and give them a questions but in the form of written. The answer is also in the form of written as well. The last activity that may be able to use is write a dialogue and act it together. In short, the activities can be various and the teacher should be creative.
Assessment
The assessment on the writing class can be divided into two type of assessment, informal and formal assessment. "Informal assessment can take a number of forms, starting with incidental, unplanned comments and responses, along with coaching and other impromptu feedback to the student" (Brown, 2004:5). Formal assessment is exercises or procedures specifically designed to tap into a storehouse of skills and knowledge.
According to the principles of suggestopedia method, the way to assess the students is in the form of informal. So, here are some possible ways to assess writing ability of the students. First, Tests and Quizzes - This is the typical way students are evaluated for their acquisition of knowledge. Second, Portfolios - this is an assessment tool that is great for helping students, as well as their teachers and parents, to see their progress over time. As students complete assignments, they put them into a single folder or portfolio. By looking at all of their work over the course of time, they can then see how they have improved and/or where they need more work. Third, Written Samples - this entails any type of written work that students create to show their comprehension of material. It can take many forms, the essay being the most common. Fourth, Project-Based Assignments - this type of assignment is usually quite extensive and allows the student to show off his or her accomplishments in a variety of ways. The student creates a project of some sort that illustrates his understanding of what he has learned over time. There are other types of assessments that can be used, but these are the ones normally found in the modern classroom.

Class Application
This section will show sample of classroom application in ten grade of Senior High School level.
Class Preparation
In the level of ten grade of Senior High School we can set the class scenery with posters that contain information they going to learn such as talking about self (see picture 2), complementing and showing care, etc.

Picture 2
Class Activities
Level SMA (X)
Skill Writing
Topic Describing People
Times 90 Minutes
Objectives The students will be able to know some expressions in describing people.
The students will be able to describe people in the written form.
Procedures The teacher greets the students in their native language confidently. The teacher tells the objectives of the lesson in that day.
The teacher asks the students to wear the name in English. Not their real names. The students also have to choose the new profession which they want to be. The teacher tells that during the course the will create an imaginary biography about the life of their new identity.
The teacher greets the students one by one in their new identity.
The next activity is that the teacher announces to the class that they will begin a new adventure. The teacher distributes a piece of paper to each student (see table 1).
The teacher begins to play the classic music and reads the text in the expressive way.
After that, the teacher asks the students to put down their paper and read the text in the second time.
After the concert, the teacher and the students discuss about the text. The teacher explains about descriptive text and gives some vocabulary that may they use in describing people (see table 2).
The teacher asks the students to work in pairs and describes each other with their new identity. They describe what their friend look like. After the students finishing their work, the teacher asks some students to read their work. The teacher that give correction directly when they are wrong.
After that, the teacher ends the class and there is no homework for the next meeting.
Descriptive text
MY BEST FRIEND
I have a lot of friends in my school, but Dinda has been my best friend since junior high school. We don't study in the same class, but we meet at school everyday during recess and after school. I first met her at junior high school orientation and we've been friends ever since.
Dinda is good-looking. She's not too tall, with fair skin and wavy black hair that she often puts in a ponytail. At school, she wears the uniform. Other than that, she likes to wear jeans, casual t-shirts and sneakers. Her favorite t-shirts are those in bright colors like pink, light green and orange. She is always cheerful. She is also very friendly and likes to make friends with anyone. Like many other girls, she is also talkative. She likes to share her thoughts and feelings to her friends. I think that's why many friends enjoy her company. However, she can be a bit childish sometimes. For example, when she doesn't get what she wants, she acts like a child and stamps her feet.
Dinda loves drawing, especially the manga characters.
She always has a sketchbook with her everywhere she goes. She would spend some time to draw the manga characters from her imagination. Her sketches are amazingly great. I'm really glad to have a best friend like Dinda.
Good-looking
Tall
Fair skin
Wavy black hair
Friendly
Talkative
Childish
Table 1
Talleyebrowpointed nose friendly
Shortblonde hairsmartskinny
Calmshy plump chubby
Round face kind helpful stubborn

Table 2
Advantages of Suggestopedia
In using suggestopedia method, there are many advantages that the teachers and students will get. First, by using suggestopedia method, students can lower their affective filter. Suggestopedia classes are held in ordinary rooms with comfortable chairs, a practice that may also help them relaxed. Teacher can do numerous other things to lower the affective filter. Second, students remember best and are most influenced by information coming from an authoritative source, teachers. Third, it refers to the learning from two aspects. They are the conscious aspect and the subconscious one. Students can acquire the aim of teaching instruction from both direct instruction and environment in which the teaching takes place. The last advantage is that suggestopedia encourages the students to apply language more independently, takes more personal responsibility for their own learning and get more confidence.  Peripheral information can also help encourage students to be more experimental, and look to sources other than the teacher for language input. For example, the students can make some sentences using the grammatical structure placed on the classroom's wall; describe a particular place in an English speaking country by looking at the poster on the wall, etc. When the students are successful in doing such self-activities, they will be more confident.
Disadvantages of Suggestopedia
Although giving many advantages, suggestopedia also has limitation. The first disadvantages is that the limited media that will be used in class. In suggestopedia class, there are many activities that need additional media. For example in concert activity, we need to play music in the class. But the problem is that some schools don't have media to play music. To solve this problem, as a creative teacher, the teacher can bring their own media such as laptop and mobile phone. The second problem in applying suggestopedia method is the ability of the teacher. There are some activities in suggestopedia that the teacher needs to be expressive. But it will be difficult for inexpressive teacher. Based on that problem, we can make the teacher more expressive by practice. So, the teacher has to be confident and practice a lot .In short, although there are some limitations, we still able to solve it.
Conclusion
This article has sketched how suggestopedia is applied in writing class. In applying sugestopedia method there are many things that teacher should consider. It includes the class preparation, class activities and the way to assess. The advantages and disadvantages in using suggestopedia method also have been discussed briefly in this article.
Suggeatopedia is a good method to develop the students' writing ability. However, it is not easy to apply it. The teacher has to be creative and expressive. The materials also have to be well-prepared. It is better if the teacher work in team so that there will be more idea to make the activities.
REFERENCES
Brown,H. Douglas. 1994. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language ownPedagogy.San Francisco: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
_______________. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. San francisco: San Francisco State University.
_______________. 2004. Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practice. San Francisco: San Francisco State University.
Darjowijojo, Soenjono. Five Advanced Approach In Language Teaching. London: Pelita Rays of Hope. 1996.
E. Sadtono. 1996. "KompetensiKomunikatif: Mau keMana?"dalamMuljantoSumardi (ed). BerbagaiPendekatandalamPengajaranBahasadanSastra. Jakarta: PustakaSinarHarapan.
Harmer, J. 1998.The practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman Group Ltd.
Lozanov, G. 1978. Suggestology and Outline of Suggestopedia. Gordon and Breach: New York,
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Larsen, Diane and Freeman. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford Univrsity Press: Oxford
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Tarigan, Henry Guntur.1986. MenulisSebagaiSuatuKeterampilanBerbahasa. Bandung: Angkasa.
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http://www.writingforward.com/better-writing/characteristics-of-good-writing accessed at 16-12-2014 3 Pm
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